|Alternate Names:||2-phospho-D-glycerate hydro-lyase, C-myc promoter-binding protein, Enolase 1, MBP-1, MPB-1, Non-neural enolase, Short name=NNE, Phosphopyruvate hydratase, Plasminogen-binding protein|
|Structure and Function:||
Multifunctional enzyme that, as well as its role in glycolysis, plays a part in various processes such as growth control, hypoxia tolerance and allergic responses. May also function in the intravascular and pericellular fibrinolytic system due to its ability to serve as a receptor and activator of plasminogen on the cell surface of several cell-types such as leukocytes and neurons. Stimulates immunoglobulin production.
Mammalian enolase is composed of 3 isozyme subunits, alpha, beta and gamma, which can form homodimers or heterodimers which are cell-type and development-specific. Can translocate to the plasma membrane in either the homodimeric (alpha/alpha) or heterodimeric (alpha/gamma) form. ENO1 is localized to Cytoplasm. Cell membrane. Cytoplasm › myofibril › sarcomere › M line.
MBP1, a shorter isoform of the ENO1, binds to the myc promoter and acts as a transcriptional repressor. May be a tumor suppressor. It locates mainly in nucleus.
|Disease Associations:||Used as a diagnostic marker for many tumors and, in the heterodimeric form, alpha/gamma, as a marker for hypoxic brain injury after cardiac arrest. Also marker for endometriosis. Antibodies against alpha-enolase are present in sera from patients with cancer-associated retinopathy syndrome (CAR), a progressive blinding disease which occurs in the presence of systemic tumor growth, primarily small-cell carcinoma of the lung and other malignancies. Is identified as an autoantigen in Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE) a rare autoimmune disease associated with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). HT is a disorder in which destructive processes overcome the potential capacity of thyroid replacement leading to hypothyroidism.|