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Detailed PDH Protocols are available describing the use of our assays and recombinant proteins.



Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH)


Alternate Names: pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, PDC
Structure and Function: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is at the centre of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. It is localized in the matrix space of mitochondria where it catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate entering the organelle to produce acetyl-CoA, NADH and CO2. Thus it links and regulates the flow of energy in cells by determining when pyruvate should be used for oxidative phosphorylation versus "neutralized" to lactic acid to allow continued glycolysis. At the same time the control of acetyl Co-A directly influences fatty acid oxidation and production of ketone bodies.

PDH is a large complex (MW around 9 MDa) consisting of multiple copies of three enzymes: pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide transacetylase (E2) and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). The E1 enzyme is a tetramer comprised of two alpha and two beta subunits and is present in 30 copies. In the mammalian enzyme, 60 copies of E2 forms the core with the other subunits organized regularly around its periphery. Intermediates of one enzyme are passed physically to become substrate for the next in a reaction sequence that is a prototype substrate channeling mechanism. In addition, one structural subunit has been identified, the E3 binding protein. This protein supports the interactions between the E2 and E3 subunits.

The activity of PDH is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of three serine residues on the E1alpha subunit. The phosphorylation of these sites is catalyzed by PDH kinases (PDK). There are four known isoforms of PDKs that are distributed differently in tissues. Their expressions are regulated differently by factors such as starvation, hypoxia and utilization of glucose and fatty acids in various tissues. In addition, transcription regulators such as PGC-1alpha, retinoic acid and the glucocorticoid receptor are involved.

Dephosporylation to restore the activity of PDH is catalyzed by PDH phosphatases (PDP). There are two known isoforms of PDPs, which are expressed differently in various tissues; PDP1 is present in high levels in skeletal muscle and PDP2 in liver and adipocytes.
Disease Associations: PDH deficiencies, diabetes, starvation, sepsis, and possibly Alzheimer's have been linked to altered PDH functioning.


Monoclonal Antibodies
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Apps. Amount
MSP01c PDH Capture Antibody Human, Bovine IP 100 g
MSP03 PDH subunit E1 alpha Antibody Human, Bovine, Rat and Mouse WB, ICC, ICE, FLOW 100 g
MSP07 PDH subunit E1 alpha Antibody Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat, Drosophila, C. elegans WB, ICC, FLOW 100 g
MSP04 PDH subunit E1 beta Antibody Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat WB 100 g
MSP05 PDH subunit E2 Antibody Human, Bovine WB, ICC, IHC, ICE, FLOW 100 g
MSP06 PDH subunit E2/E3bp Antibody Human, Bovine, Rat, Mouse WB, ICC, IHC, FLOW 100 g
MSP49 PDK1 Antibody Human, Bovine, Rat, Mouse WB, ICC, ICE 100 g
MSP52 PDK4 antibody Human WB 100 g
MSP56 Pan-PDK Antibody Human WB 100 g
ab133982 PDP2 antibody Human WB 100 g


Antibody Cocktails
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP02 PDH WB Antibody Cocktail Human, Bovine 150 g
300 g


In-Cell ELISA Kits
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP47 PhosphoPDH In-Cell ELISA Kit (IR) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 2 x 96 Tests
MSP48 PhosphoPDH In-Cell ELISA Kit (Colorimetric) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 2 x 96 Tests
ab125299 Hif1 alpha+ PDK1 Hypoxia Human In Cell ELISA Kit (IR) Human 96 Tests


Protein Quantity Assays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MS964 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115342) Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MS965 Phospho S232 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115343) Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MS966 Phospho S293 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115344) Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MS967 Phospho S300 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115345) Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
ab126582 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 (PDK4) Human ELISA Kit Human 96 Tests
MSP19 PDH Protein Quantity Microplate Assay Kit Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MSP20 PDH Combo (Activity + Quantity) Microplate Assay Kit Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MSP31 PDH Protein Quantity
Dipstick Assay Kit
Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 30 Tests
90 tests
ab181415 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) Human ELISA Kit Human 96 Tests


Enzyme Activity Assays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP18 PDH Enzyme Activity Microplate Assay Kit Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MSP20 PDH Combo (Activity + Quantity) Microplate Assay Kit Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat 96 Tests
MSP30 PDH Enzyme Activity
Dipstick Assay Kit
Human, Bovine, Mouse, Rat, Porcine 30 Tests
90 tests


Multiplexing Arrays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSX31 MetaPath™ MitoDisease
4-Plex Dipstick Array
Human 30 Tests
90 tests


Immunocapture Kits
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP01 PDH Immunocapture Kit Human, Bovine 250 g
500 g
750 g
ab133988 PDH Immunocapture Kit (rodent) Rat, mouse 100 g


Recombinant Proteins
Cat. No. Name Source Amount
MSP41 PDH Kinase 1 (PDK1) Human 50 g
MSP42 PDH Kinase 2 (PDK2) Human 50 g
MSP43 PDH Kinase 3 (PDK3) Human 50 g
MSP44 PDH Kinase 4 (PDK4) Human 50 g
MSP45 PDH Phosphatase 1 (PDP1) Human 50 g
MSP46 PDH Phosphatase 2 (PDP2) Human 50 g



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Intermediary Metabolism Overview




Acetyl-CoA Metabolism: Key Nodes




Glycolysis




Krebs Cycle




Pyruvate Metabolism: Key Nodes


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