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Download our PDH Playbook for an overview of the enzyme and approaches to its analysis.




Detailed PDH Protocols are available describing the use of our assays and recombinant proteins.



Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK) &

Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatases (PDP)


Alternate Names: pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isozymes 1, 2, 3, 4, PDK1, PDK2, PDK3, PDK4, PDHK1, PDHK2, PDHK3, PDHK4

pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1, 2, PDP1, PDP2
Structure and Function: The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDH) is at the centre of aerobic carbohydrate metabolism. It is localized in the matrix space of mitochondria where it catalyzes the irreversible oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate entering the organelle to produce acetyl-CoA, NADH and CO2. Thus, it links and regulates the flow of energy in cells by determining when pyruvate should be used for oxidative phosphorylation versus "neutralized" to lactic acid to allow continued glycolysis. At the same time the control of acetyl Co-A directly influences fatty acid oxidation and production of ketone bodies.

The activity of PDH is regulated by reversible phosphorylation of three serine residues on the E1α subunit. The phosphorylation of these sites is catalyzed by PDH kinases (PDK). There are four known isoforms of PDKs that are distributed differently in tissues. Their expressions are regulated differently by factors such as starvation, hypoxia and utilization of glucose and fatty acids in various tissues. In addition, transcription regulators such as PGC-1α, retinoic acid and the glucocorticoid receptor are involved.

Dephosporylation to restore the activity of PDH is catalyzed by PDH phosphatases (PDP). There are two known isoforms of PDPs, which are expressed differently in various tissues; PDP1 is present in high levels in skeletal muscle and PDP2 in liver and adipocytes.
Disease Associations: PDH deficiencies, diabetes, starvation, sepsis, cancer metabolism, and possibly Alzheimer's have been linked to altered PDH functioning.


Monoclonal Antibodies
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Apps. Amount
MSP49 PDK1 antibody Human, Bovine, Rat, Mouse WB, ICC, ICE, FLOW 100 µg
MSP52 PDK4 antibody Human WB 100 µg
MSP56 Pan-PDK antibody Human WB 100 g
ab133982 PDP2 antibody Human WB 100 g


Recombinant Proteins
Cat. No. Name Source Amount
MSP41 PDH Kinase 1 (PDK1) Human 50 µg
MSP42 PDH Kinase 2 (PDK2) Human 50 µg
MSP43 PDH Kinase 3 (PDK3) Human 50 µg
MSP44 PDH Kinase 4 (PDK4) Human 50 µg
MSP45 PDH Phosphatase 1 (PDP1) Human 50 µg
MSP46 PDH Phosphatase 2 (PDP2) Human 50 µg


In-Cell ELISA Kits
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP47 PhosphoPDH In-Cell ELISA Kit (IR) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 2 x 96 Tests
MSP48 PhosphoPDH In-Cell ELISA Kit (Colorimetric) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 2 x 96 Tests
ab125299 Hif1 alpha+ PDK1 Hypoxia Human In Cell ELISA Kit (IR) Human 96 Tests


Protein Quantity Assays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MS964 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115342) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MS965 Phospho S232 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115343) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MS966 Phospho S293 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115344) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MS967 Phospho S300 PDH E1 alpha protein (PDHA1) ELISA Kit (ab115345) Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
ab126582 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase 4 (PDK4) Human ELISA Kit Human 96 Tests
MSP19 PDH Protein Quantity Microplate Assay Kit Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MSP20 PDH Combo (Activity + Quantity) Microplate Assay Kit Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MSP31 PDH Protein Quantity
Dipstick Assay Kit
Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 30 Tests
90 Tests


Enzyme Activity Assays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP18 PDH Enzyme Activity Microplate Assay Kit Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MSP20 PDH Combo (Activity + Quantity) Microplate Assay Kit Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine 96 Tests
MSP30 PDH Enzyme Activity
Dipstick Assay Kit
Human, Rat, Mouse, Bovine, Porcine 30 Tests
90 Tests


Multiplexing Arrays
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSX31 MetaPath™ MitoDisease
4-Plex Dipstick Array
Human 30 Tests
90 Tests


Immunocapture Kits
Cat. No. Name Reactivity Amount
MSP01 PDH Immunocapture Kit Human, Bovine 250 µg
500 µg
750 µg



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Related Pathways:



Intermediary Metabolism Overview




Acetyl-CoA Metabolism: Key Nodes




Glycolysis




Krebs Cycle




Pyruvate Metabolism: Key Nodes


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